From A for AGF Videoforschung to Z for zapping, the most important technical terms in video research are explained here.


Panels are miniature representations of a universe. The characteristic feature of a panel is that identical observation units are tracked or measured over the course of time. Surveys based on the panel system have the advantage of being able to reproduce the stability and change of attitudes of an identical sample over a period of time (e.g. between different survey waves).

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