From A for AGF Videoforschung to Z for zapping, the most important technical terms in video research are explained here.

A-VoD stands for Advertiser-Supported Video-on-Demand, referring to video streaming services that are usually free of charge and contain commercial breaks.

Ad servers are used to distribute and process online advertising content. Ad servers directly send advertisements for online campaigns such as banners to an HTML page as soon as it is visited. Among other things the numbers of ad impressions and ad clicks are stored and made available to advertisers online.

Adjustment refers to a method for the artificial equalization of fluctuating data. The daily change of weight distribution in the AGF Panel (due to panel entries and exits, technical outages or structural changes) leads to a visible daily change of potentials for non-weighting characteristics. To avoid fluctuations of the target group potential within an analysis when performing multi-day evaluations, the target group is artificially adjusted in some analysis forms.

In both the Cumulation and frequency analysis and the Combination analysis, the weight distribution on the first day of the month of the first deadline for the programme list (campaign start) is applied for adjustment purposes.

The ADM Sampling System (Mastersample) is a sampling system created by the association of German market and social research institutions (Arbeitskreis deutscher Markt- und Sozialforschungsinstitute e.V., ADM) that is based on approximately 53,000 territorial units covering the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. The method of a multi-stage stratified random sample of survey units used in the AGF Panel is based on the ADM Sampling System for Face-to-Face Surveys that has been used in the AGF Panel since July 1, 2005.

ADSL is an acronym that stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. It refers to a variant of DSL as a broadband connection technology. Unlike DSL, data uploads to the Internet are transmitted at a slower speed than downloads from the Internet. ADSL can be used on both analog and digital telephone connections. In principle, an ADSL connection consists of two modems that are connected to a telephone line and connected with the computer by means of a USB interface or network card.

Advertisement refers to the form of advertising message: TV spot, advertisement, radio spot, movie theater spot, billboard, website online media.

Advertising medium refers to the medium used for advertising messages: television, print (magazine + newspaper), radio, movie theater, billboards and advertising pillars, online media.

The advertising medium contact for television is defined as contact with at least 60 consecutive seconds in an average half hour in which advertising appears.

The advertising medium contact for print media is defined as contact with an average issue in which advertising appears.

The advertising medium contact for radio is defined as contact with at least one quarter hour in an average hour in which advertising appears.

Advertising medium reach refers to the advertising reach of a medium. It is calculated on the basis of the definition of advertising medium contact. Under the agma guidelines, it is the currently valid standard of comparison for intermedia plans.

The Affinity Index indicates the size of reach in a certain target group in relation to the total viewership (market share in the target group as a percentage of the total market share). This index makes it possible to draw conclusions as to whether a given target group has watched a programme, commercial break or time slot more or less frequently than the total audience. For example, an Affinity Index of 140 means that the market share of a certain target group is 40% higher than that of the overall audience.

The ad customer subscription is addresses to media agencies and advertisers and permits the regular purchase of AGF data for the ad market. It is modular in structure and so allows the data purchase to be tailored for specific evaluation needs.

The AGF Conventions are the rules established by AGF for working with AGF’s complete research system. In particular, they regulate data charges and the rights and obligations for working with the data. The AGF Conventions are a binding component of all AGF’s contracts with third parties.

The AGF evaluation software fulfills the information and analysis needs of programming research and advertising planning. The software made available is sub-divided by functions into the reporting system VIDEOSCOPE, the planning system PLAN TV, the campaign control system TV CONTROL, and the special analysis system VIDEOSCOPE PLUS. AGF has engaged DAP GmbH to develop and maintain the evaluation software.

The "AGF GenZ Video Study" is a basic study on the use of video by children and young people between the ages of 3 and 17, which the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Videoforschung (AGF) commissioned from the market research institute Kantar in February and March 2020.

The study was structured in two stages: In a qualitative preliminary study, intensive explorations were conducted with children of different age groups (3-5 years / 6-10 years / 11-14 years / 15-17 years). The insights gained from these interviews on media use and the specific language worlds of the children could be implemented in the subsequent quantitative survey.

In the large-scale quantitative survey including daily routine surveys, consisting of more than 5,000 interviews and thus unique in this form on the German market, the children's TV and streaming use and their underlying motives were researched.

The central findings: Moving images are very popular with children and young people - 90 percent of all 3- to 17-year-olds consume videe content every day. You can find more information here.


The AGF Panel is one of the world’s biggest television panels, with 5,400 daily reporting, representatively selected households and the more than 11,000 persons who live in these households. Thus, it tracks the television usage of 75,304 million persons aged 3 and over or 38,773 million TV households whose MIE speaks German (01/01/2022). The usage of this universe is representatively tracked for both the entire Federal Republic of Germany and for the individual states of Germany. It is operated by GfK on behalf of AGF.

AGF Videoforschung has expanded the 2020 reach measurement with the "AGF Smart Meter" project: Using a measurement router technology developed by GfK on behalf of AGF, AGF records the use of streaming offers on smart TV sets in the AGF panel. This makes it possible to determine the average daily viewing time of selected video platforms such as Netflix and Amazon Prime Video on the big screen. The monthly reporting represents the usage times for currently seven target groups and is continuously being expanded. This measurement complements the measurement via TC UMX.

The AGF Video Potentials study is the external specifications study of AGF since 01/01/2022. The AGF Video Potentials is based on two separate research studies: The Potential Study, which is conducted in cooperation with agma and agof, and the AGF Platform Study. Both studies are conducted annually in two waves (spring and autumn).

After a joint weighting on the microcensus, both studies form the AGF Video Potentials, which (except for the Sky specifications) provides all relevant potentials of video image use in Germany and serves as an external specification for AGF research system.


Potential study: The potential study is conducted as a CATI survey (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview). People aged 14 and over are surveyed.

Platform study: The platform study is designed as a CAPI study (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) and is conducted at the respondents' homes. In addition to the survey, the interviewers examine TV-specific equipment features and check the reception options in the respondent households. People aged 14 and over are surveyed.

Before weighting on the microcensus, additional information on children aged 3-13 years is obtained from both studies and the specifications of the official statistics. The area statuses (municipality code, administrative district, federal state, GGK bik and GGK pol) of the survey studies and the microcensus are synchronised and - if necessary - updated.

In the joint weighting to the specifications of the microcensus, the tv-specific characteristics, which were obtained in the platform study by triage in the respondent households, are given a higher weight. All other information from the potential and platform study flows equally into the AGF Video Potentials.


The population comprises the resident population in the Federal Republic of Germany in private households with a German-speaking main income earner (HEB) and at least one device for moving image use (TV, PC, laptop, smartphone, tablet, game console) in use.


Total: 25,000 cases

Potential study: 20,000 cases, dual-frame, ADM selection basis, disproportional

Platform study: 5,000 cases, random sample, ADM face to face sampling system, proportional

AGF Videoforschung GmbH specializes in impartial video research. AGF continuously tracks the use of video content in Germany on a quantitative basis and analyses the data collected. It invests many millions of euros per year to continuously refine its instruments in order to deliver reliable data on the use of video content to the market on a daily basis. AGF consults closely with all market partners, including licensed TV stations, advertisers and media agencies.

The shareholders of AGF Videoforschung are ARD, Discovery Communications Deutschland, Mediengruppe RTL Deutschland, ProSiebenSat.1 Media SE, Sky Deutschland, Sport1, Tele 5, Viacom, WeltN24 and ZDF.

The research commissioned by AGF Videoforschung comprises the survey and reporting of the use of video content (TV and Online/mobile), irrespective of the distribution mode (e.g. linear or non-linear), time of use (e.g. live, time-shifted or time-independent), place of use (e.g. in the house or out of the house), distribution channel (e.g. IPTV, cable) as well as end device (e.g. TV, laptop or smartphone) as well as sender (e.g. TV broadcaster, telecommunication provider or Streaming provider) according to the rules and principles of market and opinion research.

AGF Videoforschung grants licenses for data use to other broadcasters, to media agencies and advertisers. Via licensed data users, it makes AGF data available to the press, production companies and sports sponsors in Germany and abroad, for example.

Aggregated data refers to the aggregation of individual values to form larger units, including the aggregation of second-by-second usage values for broadcasters measured to form longer time frames. The level of detail of the original information is therefore no longer included in the aggregated data.

agma is an acronym that stands for Arbeitsgemeinschaft Media-Analyse e. V., which is a coalition of advertisers, agencies and media formed with the goal of analyzing the performance of advertising media and the users of such media. For this purpose, agma conducts regular studies, so-called ma. The data collected in this study provides an important planning basis for the media genres of TV/radio, print, out of home and online. Among other things, the Potential Study conducted in collaboration with agma delivers results that AGF uses as part of its external specifications for social-demographic level control and for the weighting of the AGF Panel (see AGF Video Potentials). Within the scope of ma Intermedia PLuS, AGF provides data from its AGF Panel for intermedia planning.

Analog television refers to the analog transmission of TV programmes. In Germany, an analog television image transmitted at a frame rate of 50 Hz consists of a series of 25 individual images per second, which are further broken down into 625 lines. Images and sound are transmitted in wave form as multiple status signals. In Germany, analog television signals are only still transmitted via cable. Only digital signals are transmitted at the reception levels of terrestrial, satellite and IPTV.

Applications (apps) are additional applications that perform certain functions on terminal devices such as smartphones, tablets or a Smart TV. In the context of video usage, they especially include media libraries, EPGs, etc.

Audience flow is an indicator of the viewers’ loyalty to a programme. Studies of audience flows examine the identical viewership of consecutive programmes. They provide information about the proportion of the viewership of an examined programme that also watched the preceding programme or watched the subsequent programme.

Audio matching is a technical method for measuring audiovisual content. In the AGF Panel with the UMX measurement system, it has been used in the panel households since 08/01/2012 to survey the television usage of panel members. Under the audio matching method, audio signals in the television set are captured in the form of audio patterns and continuously checked against programmes stored in a server. Matching signals are then assigned to a TV broadcaster. If content cannot be clearly assigned to a broadcaster (for example, if the programme is broadcast simultaneously on several channels), additional information such as the regional reception spectrum or infrared codes are used to make the assignment.

AV source trackers serve the purpose of recognizing external devices that are typically used for television usage and are connected to the TV set. For example, DVD players and game consoles can be recognized by AV source trackers.

The average number of contacts indicates the average number of contacts per person; it is calculated as the quotient of contact total divided by market share. If the 0/1 method is used, this must be indicated.