From A for AGF Videoforschung to Z for zapping, the most important technical terms in video research are explained here.

A sample is a random selection from a subset of the universe. The sample used in the AGF Panel is a household sample. It is formed by recruiting one household in each sampling point on the basis of socio-demographic criteria and the type of programming reception for the panel. A disproportional sample is characterized by regional over-coverages or under-coverages. The sample of the AGF Panels is designed to be disproportional in order to also cover smaller states with a sufficient number of cases.

Sampling points are small territorial units consisting of small municipalities, urban districts or road sections covering the entire inhabited territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. The ADM Sampling System (Mastersample) is based on these roughly 53,000 points. For the AGF Panel, sampling points are determined randomly on the basis of the specified distribution of panel households across the states of Germany. One household is recruited in each one of these sampling points.

The satellite receiver is a necessary central device (along with the encryption key antenna) that allows for the direct selection of individual television and radio channels by means of an infrared remote control device.

SCART is a European-standard connector that allows for a cable connection between television sets and other audio and video devices. With a SCART cable, video and audio signals from a DVD player, for example, can be played back on a TV set.

Scatter losses or scatter gains include people who were reached by an advertising campaign but do not belong to the defined media target group.

Screen format refers to the aspect ratio of the width to the height of a TV screen. Television was initially introduced with a screen format of 4:3 because the vacuum tubes used in the TV sets were easier to handle and cheaper to produce in this format compared to a screen format of 16:9.

The standard 4:3 screen format was converted to the 16:9 aspect ratio because studies showed that a wide-screen format is better suited to the human field of vision. The 16:9 format is currently the worldwide standard for HDTV.

SDTV is an acronym that stands for Standard Definition Television, a quality standard for digital television. SDTV offers lower resolutions than HDTV.

Second screen refers to the simultaneous use of a second screen such as a smartphone or laptop together with a TV set.

The set-top box is a supplementary device connected to the TV set that broadens its functions. A set-top box can be a satellite receiver or decoder for receiving digital TV programmes or pay-TV.

Shared reception systems provide an internal cable network for several apartments or houses. Television or radio programmes are received by way of a central antenna, satellite reception key or connection to the network of the cable provider.

Simulcast refers to the simultaneous broadcast of identical content by one or different programming providers (channels).

Single source refers to the collection of data in a single survey. This makes it possible to use different characteristics from a sample for extensive media analyses, for example, without having to utilize different surveys as in the case of a fusion.

Single spots are ad spots that run during a programme outside of a commercial break. In this case, the viewers’ attention is completely focused on the given ad spot.

SINUS Markt- und Sozialforschung GmbH is a full-service marketing services institution that mainly conducts, provides and supports qualitative and quantitative market research studies. The institution employs a proprietary qualitative-psychological research approach to describe target groups known as Sinus-Milieus®, which are used by AGF, among other entities, to optimize target group definitions.

Sinus-Milieus® represent an extension of previous target group evaluations. They are primarily based on socio-demographic characteristics. Sinus-Milieus® are defined on the basis of people’s lifeworld and lifestyle as opposed to formal demographic criteria such as education, occupation and income. Fundamental value orientations and attitudes towards everyday life (work, family, leisure time, consumption) are factored into the analysis. AGF data can be evaluated on the basis of Sinus-Milieus®.

Site-centric measurement is an approach for measuring reach values. Under this approach, the measurement refers to the page impressions of a website on the basis of cookies, for example.

The smartcard is used to activate a pay-TV programme. It is used by the decoding software of the pay TV provider to recognise that a subscriber is involved. The decoding software can either already be on a set-top box provided by the pay TV provider or on the CI module.

Smart TVs include modern televisions with additional functions such as access to the internet or home network. They enable the display and playback of websites, videos, audio clips or access to social networks. As a rule, Smart TVs offer further features (e.g. media player, AVOD or SVOD services) as additional applications. If a Smart TV is actively connected to the internet, it is also called a Connected TV.

Special forms of advertising include all forms of television advertising that differ in type, content, length and presentation from the classic television spot (e.g. sponsoringsplit screen, single spot).

In contrast to general-interest channels, special-interest channels are aimed at individual target groups and special fields of interest areas such as children, sports, news/information, movies or music.

Split screens refer to the concurrent transmission of advertising and programming content by splitting the screen. They are a sub-category of special advertising form of TV advertising.

Sponsoring refers to the presentation of a product before, during or after a programme in the form of a brief advertising element that usually lasts about 7 seconds. Sponsorship announcements are subject to stricter media regulation requirements than other forms of TV advertising. For example, they are not allowed to contain advertising messages.

SSU is an acronym that stands for Sound Sampling Unit, a device that records all the audio signals of the broadcasters measured in the AGF system and condenses them into data patterns. The recorded reference data are then checked against the usage data measured via UMX. In case of a positive match, usage can be attributed to a broadcaster.

Streaming refers to the data transmission of content and the simultaneous reception of a continuous stream of data from the Internet. Streams (music or films) can be viewed without having to completely download them. It can therefore be seen as the Internet equivalent of broadcasting techniques such as radio and television.

Streaming-total is the aggregation of streaming vendors in streaming analyses and is calculated in the same way as total TV. Analyses done using total streaming add together all the incidences of steaming use relating to all of the publishers listed in the statement and approved on the key date.

The Structural Survey is an annual written survey of the structure and equipment of the households in the AGF Panel. It serves the purpose of updating the information about panel participants. The queried household and person characteristics form the basis for numerous evaluable target groups. All persons newly added to the panel also receive this questionnaire as part of the recruitment process. The following topics, among others, are queried:

  • Reception conditions in the household
  • Ownership of technical devices
  • Preferences for TV genres
  • Product use
  • Residential situation
  • Sinus Milieus
  • Socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. age, education, sex)

Technically speaking, subfeeds are television channels. However, they become part of a multi-feed as a “sub-feed” when an event is broadcast simultaneously on several channels. Subfeeds can be flexibly assigned to different events. Technical precautions are taken to ensure that they cannot be chosen individually by users, but are only available as part of an offering package.

The summation of contact total is a method by which user communities are calculated across several programmes. Either the 0/1 method or the p-value method can be used. Persons who exhibit performance values for several programmes of the programme list are counted not just once, but multiple times.

SVoD stands for subscription video-on-demand, which refers to video streaming offerings that a user can subscribe against payment of a monthly or annual fee.

Switch Ins is a form of advertising in Addressable TV. Switch ins are mainly banner placements after the switching process in the linear programme environment. However, there are also switch-in spots within the framework of switching processes in linear TV.